Thursday, April 8, 2010

Carlos P.Garcia on Stamps

Carlos P. Garcia was born in Talibon, Bohol on November 4, 1896, to Policronio Garcia and Ambrosia Polistico. He studied in Cebu Provincial High School and Silliman University then Philippine Law School and graduated in 1923. Garcia was famous for his poetry in Bohol where he earned the nickname Prince of Visayan Poets.

Garcia became a school teacher then a representative in the Philippine Congress in 1925. He was elected governor of Bohol in 1931 and re-elected 1940. Garcia became a senator in 1941. He was re-elected in 1945 and again in 1953. During the Japanese occupation, Garcia was an active member of the resistance. After the war, he was the one who missioned the Philippine Rehabilitation at War Damage claims in 1945 in the United States.

Garcia was elected as vice-president in 1953 and was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs under President Magsaysay. He assumed the presidency the day after Ramon Magsaysay's death. After Garcia finished Magsaysay's term, he was elected president in his own right. President Garcia is most remembered most for his Austerity Program and Filipino First Policy. His Austerity Program was aimed at curbing graft and corruption within the government. Although it was not very successful, it did help to restore trust between the people and the government.

The Filipino First Policy put the rights of Filipinos above those of foreigners. This favoured the Filipino businessmen in contrast to foreign investors. This meant foreigners could invest capital up to 40% in a business or industry while the remaining 60% would be owned by Filipino citizens. Garcia's policies aimed at boosting the economy and obtaining greater economic independence. Garcia also aimed at reviving old Filipino cultural traditions which might have become extinct as the result of the adoption of Spanish and American cultures through colonisation.

Maximo Kalaw on Stamps

Maximo Maguiat Kalaw (1891-1955) is a renowned writer from Lipa,Batangas. He studied at the Philippine Normal School and the University of the Philippines wherein he became the editor of Collegio Folio, the first school paper in UP. He also obtained a Bachelor of Laws from Georgetown University in 1915 and Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1924.

He became an associate editor of the Manila Times, a professor of political science at the University of the Philippines, an exchange professor at the University of Michigan, becoming the first Filipino to teach in an American university.

He was also a private secretary in the office of Manuel L. Quezon and a representative of the 3rd district of Batangas in the first legislature of the Commonwealth.

His published works include Usapin ng mga Pilipino (1915), The Development of Philippine Politics (1926), The Filipino Rebel: A Romance of the American Occupation of the Philippines (1930), The Philippine Question: An Analysis (1931), An Introduction to Philippine Social Science (1933), and Materials for the Constitution (1934).

He died on March 23, 1955.

Date of Issue: June 3, 1991

Vicente Fabella on Stamps

Vicente F. Fabella (1891-1959). Educator, economist, civic leader and the first Filipino certified public accountant. He was the founder of Jose Rizal College. He was born on May 7, 1891 in Pagsanjan, Laguna, the third of six children of Juan Fabella, who served as mayor of Pagsanjan during the Spanish and American regimes, and Damiana Fernandez.

He obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of the Philippines in 1912 and then continued his studies in the United States, obtaining concurrent degrees of bachelor of philosophy from the University of Chicago and diploma in commerce from Northwestern University in 1915. That same year, he became a certified public accountant in the state of Wisconsin.

In 1916, upon his return to the Philippines, he became a professional lecturer in accounting and auditing at the University of the Philippines. At the same time, he opened the accounting firm, Vicente Fabella and Company.

He was instrumental in the founding of Far Eastern College of Accounts, Commerce and Finance in 1919 of which he became the first president and Nicanor Reyes, founder of Far Eastern University, became an associate. The school was originally located in a four-room building on Rizal Avenue. It later transferred to Arlegui Street and, 1922, to its well-known prewar address at 1063 R. Hidalgo in Quiapo. It was also in 1922 that it changed its corporate name to Jose Rizal College. Since its foundation, JRC had been “Fully dedicated to the continued up building of educational methods and systems that have met the need of the country for the development of Philippine business, trade, industry and finance.”

The following year, the first government examination for CPA’s in the Philippines was given. Fabella was among the first to be licensed in the country. His office was instrumental in the drafting of Act 3105, which became the basis of the CPA Law of the Philippines. Dr. Conrado Benitez credited Fabella with having elevated public accountancy “to the status of a profession,” adding that the training of CPA’s “is his lasting contribution to the building of the nation.”

Fabella was a founding member of the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities (PACU), organized in 1932, and the Philippine Association of Collegiate Schools of Business (PACSB) which was formally set up in 1962. In 1933, he was named Philippine delegate to the 4th International Congress on Accounting in London. In 1937, he helped the establishment of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps. (ROTC).

He was a charter member of the Delta Mu Delta, an honorary society of Northwestern University, and a member of the American Association of University Instructors in Accounting.

When the Japanese invaded the Philippines in 1941, Fabella shut down JRC as a gesture of protest, and got himself involved in the underground movement. Despite the repeated requests by the Japanese authorities to have his school reopened, he kept it closed throughout the entire occupation period. As a consequence, the school building and his residence were commandeered by the Japanese, forcing him and his family to seek shelter in the mountains of Laguna.

Soon after the liberation of Manila in 1945, efforts were made to get classes in schools started once again. JRC resumed its operation in school year 1946-47. In 1949, seeing that the R. Hidalgo location could no longer accommodate added facilities for students, Fabella moved JRC to its present spacious grounds in Mandaluyong. This was also the time when he turned over his accounting firm to his younger brother. This allowed him to work in a more relaxed manner and to make frequent travels abroad.

In 1955, President Ramon Magsaysay asked him to join the Central Bank survey Commission. The commission took over a year to complete its work. Thus, Fabella took his last long trip to Europe in 1957.

He was 67 when he passed away on February 14, 1959. His widow, Carmen de Jesus, succeeded him to the presidency of JRC. He had three children: Virginia, a Maryknoll nun who has adopted the name of Sor Maria del Carmen; Armand, and Carmen.

Date of Issue: June 3, 1991

Jose P. Laurel on Stamps

Jose P. Laurel (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the third president of the Republic of the Philippines. An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court before becoming president, he was also an educator, having founded the Lyceum of the Philippines.

Laurel was born on 9 March 1891 in Tanauan, Batangas to Sotero Laurel and Jacoba Garcia. His father, who was the Secretary of the Interior in Emilio Aguinaldo's cabinet and a signatory to the Malolos Constitution, was taken prisoner during the Filipino-American War and died in captivity in 1902 when Laurel was only 11 years old.

This led the young Laurel to work as an altar boy and chorister, later taking on a job as a part-time laborer at the Bureau of Forestry when he turned 18, for the money he needed to continue his studies. He later became a clerk for the Code Committee, where he met Thomas Atkins Street, a future member of the Philippine Supreme Court and who served as his mentor.

After graduating from the Manila High School (now Araullo High School) in 1911, he eloped with Paciencia Hidalgo, and enrolled at the University of the Philippines College of Law, where he later earned his doctorate in Philosophy. He ranked second in his class of 60 and also came out second in the 1915 Bar Examinations.

Laurel later obtained a Licenciado en Jurisprudencia degree from the Escuela de Derecho in Manila while serving as Chief of the Executive Bureau's Administration Division. He was later sent to Yale University as a government pensionado in 1919, earning a degree in civil law a year later.

He also took special courses in international law at Oxford University in England and the University of Paris in France, before returning to the Philippines in 1921.

Upon his return to the country in 1921, Laurel was appointed chief of the Executive Bureau on the strength of his academic achievements. A year later, he was promoted to Undersecretary of the Interior, and after ten months was made Secretary of the same department by Governor-General Leonard Wood.

Laurel resigned his post along with the rest of the Filipino members of the Cabinet during the Cabinet Crisis of 1923. It was a sign of protest against Wood's opposition to measures working for Philippine independence by vetoing 16 bills passed by the Philippine Legislature.

After resigning from Wood's cabinet, Laurel opened a law office and taught law in Manila before running for a Senate seat in the 1924 elections. Winning in the elections, he however lost to Claro M. Recto in the 1931 elections. He was later elected as the delegate for Batangas in the 1934 Constitutional Convention. Laurel was considered one of the “Seven Wise Men” of the convention, heading the committee on the Bill of Rights.

Laurel was later appointed by Pres. Manuel L. Quezon as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1935, where he became famous for many landmark decisions, such as on the Nalundasan case in 1940, acquitting future president Ferdinand E. Marcos of murder after finding the prosecution's case contradictory.

Another landmark decision was on the Angara v. Electoral Commission case, where he affirmed the power of the judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to place under judicial review the actions of the other branches of government.

As World War II broke out in the Pacific on 8 December 1941, Quezon along with other government officials fled to Corregidor to establish a Commonwealth government in exile. However, Laurel was ordered to remain in Manila by Quezon because of his close relationship with Japanese officials (even receiving an honorary doctorate from Tokyo University) before the war broke out.

As the Japanese took over the Philippines in January 1942, they created the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the country. First headed by Jorge B. Vargas, former mayor of Manila, the commission included Laurel as Commissioner of Justice, and later Commissioner of the Interior. Because of this appointment, Laurel was seen as a collaborator with the Japanese.

On 5 June 1943, Laurel was shot while playing golf in Wack-Wack, but survived. He was then elected president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic on 25 September 1943, with Benigno Aquino, Sr. as speaker. They were then flown to Tokyo along with Vargas, where they were prodded by the Japanese government to declare war on the United States and Great Britain. Laurel refused, saying that the Filipinos would disapprove of it and he would lose his following if he did so.

Laurel nonetheless instituted a Filipino First policy. He had all Japanese guards and advisers removed from Malacañang, saying that if the Japanese were really sincere about independence they should prove it. He also asserted custody over Manuel Roxas to prevent him from falling into the hands of the Japanese.

However, as the Americans launched the first air raid on Manila and the Japanese threatened to kill more Filipinos if he did not agree, Laurel issued a declaration of war on the United States and Great Britain after consulting with Roxas and other Filipino leaders. There was one condition: no Filipino could be drafted into service under the Japanese military.

Despite this restriction, the pro-Japanese Makabayang Pilipino, or Makapili, was formed by Benigno Ramos, Pio Duran and Gen. Artemio Ricarte in December 1944. During its inauguration at the Legislative Building, Laurel delivered a speech that rebuked its formation.

As the war neared its end, the Japanese ordered Laurel and other government officials to leave for Baguio, from where they were brought to Japan as hostages. After Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945, Laurel dissolved the Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic two days later.

He contacted General Douglas MacArthur on 14 September 1945 to inform him of his whereabouts. The next day, Laurel and his family were arrested and imprisoned in Japan by American agents. Without any writing instruments and the only reading material allowed him was a book called The World in 2030 AD given by his son, Salvador, Laurel started to write his War Memoirs during his imprisonment.

Laurel was flown back to Manila by the Americans on 23 July 1946 and was imprisoned in Muntinlupa to face trial for the crime of treasonable collaboration against the United States. Meanwhile, Roxas—whom he had sheltered during the war—was elected president of the Philippines.

Laurel appeared before the People's Court on 2 September 1946, pleading not guilty. His petition for bail was granted on 14 September 1946, and the trial was scheduled for July 1947. This was halted when Roxas issued a proclamation granting amnesty to all political and economic collaborators on 28 January 1947.

Laurel later ran for the presidency under the Nacionalista Party in the elections of 1949, but lost to Elpidio Quirino of the Liberal Party amid charges of massive cheating and fraud. Despite losing in the presidential race, Laurel won a Senate seat in 1951. During his Senate stint he authored many landmark bills, such as the Rizal bill, which made Jose Rizal's two novels, (Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo) compulsory reading in all universities and colleges. He and Claro M. Recto also authored the bill that established the National Education Board.

He also called for the creation of an economic superbody to formulate and implement the economic and monetary policies of the government, which would later become the forerunner of the present National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). After retiring from politics, Laurel focused on managing the Lyceum of the Philippines, which he founded on 7 July 1952. During that time, he also served as the president of the Philippine Banking Corporation.

He died on 6 November 1959 of a massive heart attack and stroke.

Date of Issue: June 3, 1991

Ricardo Paras on Stamps

Paras had an illustrious career in the judiciary starting as a judge in the Court of First Instance in Samar, Ilocos Sur, Abra and Pangasinan. In 1936, President Quezon appointed him as one of the original members of the Court of Appeals. He also served as associate Justice of the supreme court during the Japanese occupation.

Ricardo M. Paras (February 17, 1891 - November 25, 1984) was the Chief Justice of the Philippines from April 2, 1951 until February 17, 1961.

He graduated his Bachelor of Laws from the University of the Philippines in 1913, and placed second (after future president Manuel Roxas) in the Bar Examinations that same year. He engaged in private law practice before being elected in the House of Representatives in 1919. His judicial career started when he was appointed judge in 1924, and later on appointed in 1936 to the Court of Appeals. He became an associate Justice in 1941, and was a member of the wartime judiciary during the Japanese Occupation.

Paras made a frugal approach in order to survive and maintain the efficiency of service during the post-war years. He advocated the elimination of the case backlog, and encouraged speedy adjudication and deliberation of the cases. His dedication to such advocacy paid off, when there was no more backlog upon his retirement in 1961.

His son, Edgardo B. Paras, became a member of the Philippine Supreme Court from 1986 to 1992.

According to Justice J.B.L. Reyes, during the deliberations of the People v. Hernandez rebellion case, Justice Sabino Padilla (who is the brother of the Solicitor General arguing for the Government) openly accused the Chief Justice (Paras) for being prejudiced against the Government and asking biased questions during the oral argument. Riled, Paras rebutted, and a heated exchange soon ensued, which would have worsened had not they restrained themselves.

Date of Issue: June 3, 1991

Jorge B. Vargas on Stamps

Jorge B. Vargas (August 24, 1890 – February 22, 1980) was a lawyer and youth advocate born in Bago City, Negros Occidental, Philippines. He graduated valedictorian from Bacolod High School in 1909 and obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1911 and a Bachelor of Law degree with honors in 1914, both from the University of the Philippines. He was a founding member of the Philippine Amateur Athletic Federation (now the Philippine Olympic Committee) in 1911 and served in its Executive Committee in 1918. He served as its second Chairman from 1935 to 1955. He was also the first Filipino member of the International Olympic Committee.

After being admitted to the Philippine Bar in 1914, he was appointed as law clerk in the Philippine Commission. He quickly rose through the ranks and was promoted to the position of Chief Clerk of the Department of the Interior in 1917.

In 1918 he served as the legislative secretary to Speaker Sergio Osmeña of the House of Representatives and in 1919 was appointed by President Manuel L. Quezon as his Executive Secretary, becoming the first in the country to serve in such a position.

Vargas was designated by Philippine Commonwealth President Manuel Quezon as mayor of the Greater Manila area in 1941. His responsibilities included administering the "open city" upon the arrival of occupational troops of the Imperial Japanese Army on January 2, 1942.

By 1942, Vargas became chairman of the Japanese-sponsored Philippine Executive Commission. During the collaborationist Second Philippine Republic, he was once asked by the Japanese to assume the Presidency, but he declined. He instead served as the regime's Ambassador to Japan. In that position, he was quoted shortly before Japanese troops were driven from Manila as stating that "we know Japan is destined for sure victory and prosperity for ages to come." Vargas served as Chairman of the National Planning Commission from 1946–1954 and was a member of the Board of Regents of the University of the Philippines from 1961-1965. In 1960, the Republic of the Philippines conferred on him the Legion of Honor with the rank of Commander.

Vargas’ involvement with Scouting started in 1935 when he became a member of the executive board of the Philippine Council of the Boy Scouts of America. Together with other Philippine Scouting advocates he became one of the charter members of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines in 1936.

Upon the death of Manuel Camus in 1949 he was unanimously chosen by the National Executive Board to serve as the BSP's President and Chief Scout. He served the position of National President until 1961. He became a member of the World Scout Committee of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1951 to 1957.

Vargas was awarded the Bronze Wolf in 1959 and received other awards including the Silver Tamaraw (Philippines), Silver Fox (Canada), Silver Ibex (Austria), Silver Wolf (UK), and the White Eagle (Japan). He also became the first recipient of the Tanglaw ng Kabataan (Light of the Youth) Award of the BSP in 1961.

Date of Issue: June 3,1991

Gen.Vicente Lukban on Stamps

Vicente R. Lukbán (February 11, 1860–November 16, 1916), was a Filipino officer in Emilio Aguinaldo's staff during the Philippine Revolution and the politico-military chief of Samar and Leyte during the Philippine-American War. The Americans credited him as the mastermind of the infamous Balangiga massacre, in which more than forty American troopers were killed. Later investigations by historians, however, disclosed that Lukban played no actual part in the planning of the attack.

Lukbán was born in Labo, Camarines Norte on February 11, 1860 to Agustin Lukbán of Ambos Camarines and Andrea Rilles of Lucban, Tayabas. He completed his early education at Escuela Pia in Lucban, continued his studies at Ateneo Municipal de Manila, and took up Bachelor of Laws at the University of Santo Tomas and Colegio de San Juan de Letran.

He returned to Labo after resigning from his job at the Manila Court of First Instance. He married Sofía Dízon Barba and the union produced four children: Cecilia, Félix, Agustín, and Vicente, Jr. Sofía died after their last child was born. Lukbán then left his children in the care of his siblings so that he could devote his time to the cause of the revolution.

Lukbán, thereafter, accepted the post of Justice of the Peace. In 1884, he was inducted into Freemasonry, Luz de Oriente ("Light of the Orient"). The organization had attracted many intellectuals and middle-class Filipinos to its ranks. In 1886, he stopped working in the judicial office and busied himself with agriculture and commerce in Bicol. He formed La Cooperativa Popular aimed at promoting the cooperative business activities of small and medium scale producers with the aim to increase their income from the lands by selling their products without passing through middle men. Part of the profits of the cooperatives were secretly remitted to the revolutionary movement of Andrés Bonifacio, the Katipunan. The cooperative also served as an effective covert means of spreading the ideals of the revolution. Their members could move around freely without arousing the suspicion of the Spanish authorities.

By 1896, Lukbán had centralized the funds of the cooperatives into the coffers of the revolution. He periodically remitted money to the evolving revolutionary movement. At the same time, he acted as an emissary of the Katipunan unit in Bicol to gather information about the Spanish movements in Manila and to determine how such movements affected Bicol provinces. On one of his trips to Manila, he was arrested by the guardia civiles, ("civil guards") and charged with conspiring to overthrow the government. He was imprisoned in Bilibid prison and tortured[citation needed] at Fort Santiago. While Lukbán was still in prison, the Philippine Revolution began. On August 18, 1897, he was released from jail, together with Juan Luna and immediately thereafter, joined the revolutionary government’s armed forces.

In the army, he was commissioned to serve as one of Emilio Aguinaldo's officers. Lukbán was among the few who assisted Aguinaldo in planning war strategies and activities. When the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was signed, he was asked by Aguinaldo to be one of the members of his party going into exile in Hong Kong. Lukban spent his exile in Hong Kong studying military science under the Lord Commander Joseph Churchase of the British Naval command. This enabled him to master the arts of soldiery — fencing, shooting, gunpowder and ammunitions preparations, and the planning and execution of war strategies and tactics.

Shortly after Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence in 1898, Lukbán was sent to the Bicol region to direct military operations against the Spaniards. His successes in Bicol ushered him into a new and challenging assignment: as Leyte and Samar's politico-military chief. Lukbán married his second wife Paciencia Gonzales in Samar. This union produced eight children: Victoria, Juan, María, Fidel, Rosita, Ramon, José and Lourdes.

On December 31, 1899, a hundred riflemen under Lukbán gathered and he proclaimed himself the new governor of Samar under the First Philippine Republic. When the U.S. 1st Infantry Regiment landed on Samar’s shores in January 1901, they were met by suicidal charges of bolomen under Lukbán’s command. Nevertheless, Lukban was soon forced to retreat into the island's interior, leaving behind an organized resistance network. Samareños caught cooperating with the Americans were executed swiftly and dramatically. When U.S. General Arthur MacArthur offered Lukban amnesty in exchange for his surrender, he turned it down and swore to fight to the end.

Although bearing command responsibility for the Balangiga massacre, Lukbán learned about it a week later, on October 6, 1901. Other than a letter to town mayors encouraging them to follow the Balangiga example on the same date, there are no published records of his reaction to the news or later comment from him.

After Baldomero Aguinaldo’s capture in 1901, Samar, under Lukbán's leadership, remained one of the few areas of Filipino resistance. American troops encountered few enemies to fight in the open, finding themselves constantly harassed by Lukbán's guerrillas. However, two prisoners later revealed the location of Lukbán’s secret headquarters along the Cadac-an River, Basey, Samar. The prisoners warned that the fort was impregnable, but Major Littleton Waller sent scouts to investigate. On November 17, 1901, Waller attacked with an amphibious assault team up the river, as Captains Bearss and Porter attacked by land with forces from Basey and Balangiga. The amphibious assault was foiled by a Filipino trap, and Porter attacked alone. The Filipino soldiers fled before machine gun fire, leaving scaling ladders behind for the Americans. The retreating Filipinos were gunned down from behind as the American flag was raised above the garrison. It was a clear victory for the United States, with 30 Filipinos dead and the capture of Lukbán and his lieutenants. The war on Samar, however, would not truly be over until the rugged interior was conquered.

Lukbán's career did not end with his captivity. He was elected governor of Tayabas (now Quezon province) in 1912 and re-elected in 1916. He died at his Manila residence on November 16, 1916.

Date of Issue: July 31, 1987

Graciano Lopez Jaena on Stamps

Graciano López y Jaena
(December 18, 1856 - January 20, 1896), was a Filipino writer and journalist in the Philippine Revolution. He was recognized as the "Prince of Filipino Orators" who wrote great and striking articles in the infamous newspaper La Solidaridad in Barcelona, Spain.

López Jaena was born in Jaro, Iloilo to Placido López and María Jacoba Jaena. His parents were poor; his mother was a seamstress and his father a general repairman. At the age of six, López Jaena was placed under the care of Friar Francisco Jayme who raised him.

His parents sent López Jaena to the Seminario de San Vicente Ferrer in Jaro which had been opened under the administration of Governor General Carlos María de la Torre. While studying at a seminary institution, López Jaena served as a secretary to an uncle named Claudio López who was the honorary vice consul of Portugal in Iloilo. His ambition of becoming a physician, convinced his parents that this was the better course of action. López Jaena sought enrollment at the University of Santo Tomas but was denied admission because the required Bachelor of Arts degree was not offered at the seminary in Jaro. However he was appointed to the San Juan de Dios Hospital as an apprentice. Unfortunately, due to financial problems, his parents could not afford to keep him in Manila. He returned to Iloilo and practiced medicine in communities.

During this period, his visits with the poor and the common people began to stir feelings about the injustices that were common. At the age of 18 he wrote the satirical story "Fray Botod" which depicted a fat and lecherous priest. Botod’s false piety "always had the Virgin and God on his lips no matter how unjust and underhanded his acts are." This naturally incurred the fury of the friars who knew that the story depicted them. Although it was not published a copy circulated in the region but the Friars could not prove that López Jaena was the author. However he got into trouble for refusing to testify that certain prisoners died of natural causes when it was obvious that they had died at the hands of the mayor of Pototan. López Jaena continued to agitate for justice and finally went to Spain when threats were made on his life.

López Jaena sailed for Spain in 1879. There he was to become a leading literary and oratorical spokesman for the Philippine reformal issues. Philippine historians regard López Jaena, along with Marcelo H. del Pilar and José P. Rizal, as the triumvirate of Filipino propagandists. Of these three Ilustrados, López Jaena was the first to arrive and may have founded the genesis of the Propaganda movement.

López Jaena pursued his medical studies at the University of Valencia but did not finish the course. Once Rizal approached Lopéz Jaena for not finishing his medical studies. Graciano replied, "On the shoulders of slaves should not rest a doctor's cape." Rizal countermanded, "The shoulders do not honor the doctor's cape, but the doctor's cape honors the shoulders."

He then moved to the field of journalism. Losing interest in politics and academic life, he soon enjoyed his life in Barcelona and Madrid. However, his friends would forgive him these indiscretions due to his appeal with words and oratory. Mariano Ponce who was another of the Filipino propagandists in Spain observed, "... a deafening ovation followed the close of the peroration, the ladies waved their kerchiefs wildly, and the men applauded frantically as they stood up from their seats in order to embrace the speaker."

Rizal noted, "His great love is politics and literature. I do not know for sure whether he loves politics in order to deliver speeches or he loves literature to be a politician."

In addition he is remembered for his literary contributions to the propaganda movement. López Jaena founded the fortnightly newspaper, La Solidaridad. When the publication office moved from Barcelona to Madrid, the editorship was succeeded to Marcelo H. del Pilar.

López Jaena died of tuberculosis on January 20, 1896, eleven months short of his 40th birthday. The following day, he was buried in unmarked grave at the Cementerio del Sud-Oeste of Barcelona. His death was followed on July 4 by Marcelo H. del Pilar and on December 30 of José Rizal by firing squad, thus ending the great triumvirate of propagandists. He died in poverty just shy of two and a half years before the declaration of independence from Spain by Emilio Aguinaldo. His remains was never brought back to the Philippines.

Date of Issue: May 1, 1952

Gen. Vicente Lim on Stamps

Brigadier General Vicente Lim (1889 – 1944) was a World War II general. He was born in Calamba City, Laguna, Philippines, which is also the birthplace of José Rizal, the country's national hero.

Lim was the first Filipino graduate of the United States Military Academy (Class of 1914) at West Point, General Lim served as a 2nd Lieutenant during World War I. At the war’s end, he returned to the Philippines, where he continued his military career and quickly rose in rank (initially with the Philippine Scouts and later with the Philippine Army). By 1940, he was appointed to the post of Chief of Staff of the Philippine Army.

When the Philippine Army was incorporated into the American Armed Forces on July 16, 1941, Lim was given the rank of Brigadier General and became the top–ranking Filipino under General Douglas MacArthur, placed in command of the 41st Philippine Division, tasked with the defense of southern Luzon. On April 9, 1942, the 41st surrendered on Bataan, along with all American and Filipino forces, to the Japanese 14th Army of General Homma.

Lim survived the Bataan Death March, and on June 6 , 1942 was admitted to the Philippine General Hospital for treatment of injuries sustained at Bataan (where he had led the bloody rear guard action against the Japanese in Abucay, Bataan). He recovered quickly, but with the help of his brother–in–law, Dr. Jose N. Rodriguez, he concealed this fact. With the Japanese convinced of his incapacitation, he led the guerilla resistance forces of Luzon. Basically, he conducted secret guerrilla activities while pretending to be confined at the Philippine General Hospital.

In 1944 he was ordered to rejoin General Douglas MacArthur in Australia. He attempted the journey but was captured en route by the Japanese. He was held for months at Fort Santiago and the Bilibid prison before being beheaded, along with Colonel Antonio Escoda, shortly before the liberation.

General Lim died 31 December 1944 and is listed among the Tablets of the Missing at Manila National Cemetery.

Date of Issue: August 22, 1982

Lapu-Lapu on Stamps

Lapu-Lapu (1491–1542) was the datu of Mactan, an island in the Visayas in the Philippines, who is known as the first native of the archipelago to have resisted Spanish colonization. He is now regarded as the first Filipino hero.

On the morning of April 27, 1521, Lapu-Lapu led approximately 1,500 Mactan warriors armed with spears, kampilan and kalasag, in a battle against 49 Christian soldiers led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. In what would later be known as the Battle of Mactan, Magellan and several of his men were killed.

According to Sulu oral tradition, Lapu-Lapu was a Muslim chieftain, and was also known as "Kaliph Pulaka". Other Moros also recognize him as a Muslim and as a Tausūg. A variant of the name, as written by Carlos Calao, a 17th century Chinese-Spanish poet in his poem "Que Dios Le Perdone" (Spanish, "That God May Forgive Him") is "Cali Pulacu". In the 19th century, the propagandist Mariano Ponce used a variant name, "Kalipulako", as one of his pseudonyms. The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence refers to Lapu-Lapu as "King Kalipulako de Maktan".

The Cebuano people have erected a statue in his honor on Mactan Island and renamed the town of Opon in Cebu to Lapu-Lapu City. A more recent statue was given as a gift to the Philippines by South Korea in 2005. It stands in Rizal Park in the national capital of Manila.

Lapu-Lapu appears as a central figure in the official seal of the Philippine National Police and as the main design on the defunct 1-centavo coin circulated in the Philippines from 1967-1974.

During the First Regular Session of the 14th Congress of the Philippines, Senator Richard Gordon introduced a bill proposing to declare April 27 as an official Philippine national holiday to be known as Adlaw ni Lapu-Lapu, (Cebuano, "Day of Lapu-Lapu").

Two Filipino films, both called "Lapu-Lapu", have been made about the figure—the first in 1955 and the second in 2002. The latter stars actor-turned-politician Lito Lapid and Joyce Jimenez.

A street in the South of Market neighborhood of San Francisco, California is named after Lapu-Lapu.

Date of Issue: October20, 1963

Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat on Stamps

Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat (also spelled Qudarat) (1581–1671) was a Sultan of Maguindanao in the Philippines. During his reign, he successfully opposed the Spaniards who attempted to conquer his villages and hindered the Christianization of the island of Mindanao. He was a direct descendant of Shariff Kabungsuan, a Muslim missionary who brought Islam to the Philippines between the 13th and 14th century. The Philippine province of Sultan Kudarat is named after him.

After succeeding his father in 1619, he defeated several tribes and proclaimed his kingdom as the Datu (king) of the Pulangui region. He also governed a settlement in what is now Cagayan de Oro, Caraga, and established Misamis and Bukidnon as his tributaries. He also made friendly relations with the Spaniards and the Dutch, however the Spaniards tried to conquer his tribes, but failed and were forced to ransom their soldiers from the sultan. Governor-General Alonso Fajardo signed a treaty with Kudarat on June 25, 1645 which allowed Spanish missionaries to established Christianity in Mindanao, allowing a church built, and trade in the sultan’s territories.

Date of Issue: January 13, 1975

Tarhata Kiram on Stamps

Princess Tarhata Kiram, (1904-1979). Like the slender curves of a Moro kris, her name conjures the image of Oriental grace and fierceness. Princess Hadja Tarhata Kiram was a Tausug blue blood, born in 1904 in the Sulu archipelago, the oldest sultanate in the Philippines. Her father was the sultan of Sulu, Mohammed Esmali Kiram. She was, however, adopted by her uncle, Sultan Jamalul Kiram II.

Strong-willed and liberal-minded, she held feminist views that preceded those espoused by the modern women’s liberation movement in the Philippines by decades. Known for her beauty, she one graced the cover of the Philippine Free Press magazine. Her life style, too, was jaw-dropping. It seemed that wherever she went her retinue led by a governess trailed not far behind her. As a young woman brimming with intellect, she was sent to the United States in 1920 as the first woman pensionado. As expected, her entourage accompanied her. At a time when women were generally considered as home keepers, her choice must have created quite a stir in the Philippines.

She finished her studies at the University of Illinois. Her American education over, she returned to Sulu. Except for the noticeable accent, the Princess reverted to her native ways. She donned anew the sablay and sawwa, traditional Tausug dresses. Not stopping there, however, she shocked not only the American officers but her family as well when she married Datu Tahil, Tausug leader of the 1927 Moro revolt in Sulu. Because of this, she was forced to go on exile on an island where she remained for three years, resurfacing only in 1931 when she joined local politics.

Opposition to land taxes, the cedula, the imposition of penalties for tax delinquencies, and the prohibition against the carrying of weapons fueled Datu Tahil’s uprising in Sulu in 1927. A veteran of the 1913 battle of Bud Bagsak, where he lost his wife and child, Datu Tahil had reconciled to American authority. He had served as the third member of the provincial board of Sulu and was considered as a prospective governor. His disappointment at not being appointed to the post may have precipitated his personal break with the government. He constructed a fort in Patikul, not far from Jolo town, where a sizeable number of his followers rallied behind him. On January 31, 1927, government troops attacked his fort, killing 30 to 40 of his men. Datu Tahil managed to escape, but secretly surrendered on February 8, to the provincial governor. Princess Tarhata pleaded for clemency, and he was sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined P10, 000. His surrender enraged his surviving followers. His sisters, purportedly, wished him dead.

Princess Tarhata had two other marriages: to Datu Buyungan and to Salvador Francisco, a Christian lawyer, accountant and engineer. In politics, she found ways to plug the laws disadvantageous to the Muslims. She was consultant on Islamic affairs at the office of the commissioner, Region 9, under Rear Admiral Romulo Espaldon. She became noted for her contributions to the government’s development activities in Mindanao.

She was one of the heirs of the island of Sabah, which the Sultan of Sulu had leased to the British but which the British never returned. The Princess led the other royal heirs in renouncing their proprietary rights over the island in July 1977, in line with President Marcos’ efforts to foster closer relations with Malaysia.

The Princess proved herself not only in politics, but also in music, writing Tausug songs. “Jolo Farewell” was among her most popular compositions. One of her memorable political battles was her denunciation in 1927 together with Senator Hadji Butu Rasul of the Bacon Bill, which sought to exclude the Sulu archipelago from Mindanao.

Princess Tarhata died of heart failure on May 23, 1979 at the Veterans Memorial hospital in Quezon City. She was 75. She had two children: Puti Denchurain and Datu Agham Kiram. As a tribute to her courage in fighting for the rights of her fellow Muslims, the National Historical Institute honored her by placing a marker in her name in Jolo, Sulu in 1984.

Date of Issue: January 16, 1984

Teodoro Kalaw on Stamps

Teodoro M. Kalaw (1884-1940) was one of the most outstanding trilingual writers and historians of the Philippines. He was born on March 31, 1884 in the town of Lipa, Batangas.

He was first and foremost a bibliophile and he specialized in the collection of original documents, which became the basis for much of his historical research. He was a true Renaissance man, at various times he was a journalist, publisher, government bureacrat and elected public official.

As a teen he collected revolutionary leaflets and newspapers and built a small collection of papers centered on the revolution. Among those papers were those of Apolinario Mabini and the most valuable was the record of the Andres Bonifacio trial.

He finished his law degree in Manila and became the youngest editor of El Renacimiento, an extreme nationalist newspaper. At that time the nationalist struggle moved underground to the free press and he was its prime exponent. His editorials staunchly defended the national interest and he became an arch-critic of the the American colonial regime In 1908 he was sued for libel by the then Secretary of Interior Dean Conant Worcester for having published a blind editorial called "Aves de Rapiña" or "Birds of Prey."

The October 30, 1908 editorial thundered:" The Eagle, symbolizing liberty and strength, had found the most admirers--and men oollectively and individually, have desired to copy and imitate this most rapacious of birds in order to triumph in the plundering of their fellowmen. But there is a man who, besides being like the eagle, also has the characteristics of a vulture, the owl and the vampire. He ascends the mountains of Benguet ostensible to classify and measure Igorot skulls, to study and to civilize the Igorots but at the same time he also espies during his flight, with the keen eye of the bird of prey, were the large deposits of gold are, the real prey...and then he appropriates these all to himself afterwards, thanks to the legal facilities he can make and unmake at will, always however redounding to his benefit."

Dean Worcester felt quite certain that the editorial alluded to him, as he was not only Secretary of Interior, he was the Chief of the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes which he had set up for the express purpose of surveying tribal lands and studying their indigenous peoples. The editorial although written in Spanish was so daring because it accused the "Eagle" of corruption and using public office for personal gain.

Worcester sued both the publisher Martin Ocampo and the young editor. The case dragged before the courts for two years when finally the judge found the Filipinos guilty and ordered them to pay damages of P60,000. The newspaper was forced to close down, but immediately the duo of Ocampo and Kalaw started another nationalist newspaper La Vanguardia. Years later Teodoro Kalaw would reveal that he had never even written the editorial. It was his fellow journalist Fidel Reyes.

Notwithstanding his notoriety, Kalaw was still able to run for and win a seat at the Philippine Assembly. Such was his popularity among Filipinos that he even ssumed Worcester's position as Secretary of Interior in 1920. Subsequently, Kalaw became director of the National Library, writing in his spare time historical essays. Most of his writings have been compiled into pamphlets and books. Don Teodoro wrote in Tagalog, Spanish, and English.

Historical writings 1900s to 1940 were so dominated by him, that the Philippines' leading historian Teodoro Agoncillo considered this period as the "Age of Kalaw." Teodoro M. Kalaw's literary output was so prolific that later generations of Filipinos considered him the father of Philippine libraries. He died in 1940.

Date of Issue: March 31, 1984

Emilio Jacinto on Stamps

Emilio Jacinto (15 December 1875 – 16 April 1899) was known as the “Brains of the Katipunan.” He was a Filipino revolutionary and writer.

Jacinto was born on 15 December 1875 in Trozo, Tondo, Manila to Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. His father having died shortly after he was born, Jacinto was sent to live with his uncle, Don Jose Dizon. He was educated in both Spanish and Filipino and attended the Colegio de San Juan Letran. He later transferred to the University of Santo Tomas where he studied law; however, he did not finish the course.

At the age of 19, Jacinto joined the Katipunan and became one of its leaders. He served as Andres Bonifacio's secretary and fiscal, and also supervised the manufacture of gunpowder to be used by the Katipuneros in battle. A gifted writer, Jacinto also became the editor of Ang Kalayaan, the newspaper of the Katipunan. He wrote the Kartilya ng Katipunan which contains the rules and regulations of the movement. He also wrote the poem “A La Patria,” which was inspired by Dr. Jose Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios, under the pen name of Dimas Ilaw.

Jacinto was mortally wounded in a battle in Majayjay, Laguna and died on 16 April 1899 at the age of 24. His remains were later transferred to the Manila North Cemetery.

Date of Issue: December 15, 1975

Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo on Stamps

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo y Padilla (21 February 1855 - 13 March 1913) was a Filipino artist. He is acknowledged as one of the great Filipino painters of the late 19th century, and is significant in Philippine history for having been an acquaintance and inspiration for members of the Philippine reform movement which included José Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar, Mariano Ponce and Graciano López Jaena, although he neither involved himself directly in that movement, nor later associate himself with the First Philippine Republic under Emilio Aguinaldo.

His winning the silver medal in the 1884 Madrid Exposition of Fine Arts, along with the gold win of fellow Filipino painter Juan Luna, prompted a celebration which was a major highlight in the memoirs of members of the Philippine reform movement, with Rizal toasting to the two painters' good health and citing their win as evidence that Filipinos and Spaniards were equals.

Hidalgo was born in Binondo Manila on February 21, 1855. He was the third of seven children of Eduardo Resurrección Hidalgo and Maria Barbara Padilla. He studied in the University of Santo Tomas. He studied law, which he never finished, received a bacheller en filosifia in March 1871. He was simultaneously enrolled at the Escuela de Dibujo y Pintura. In 1876, he previewed his La banca (The Native Boat), Vendadora de lanzones (Lanzones Vendor) and other paintings at the Teatro Circo de Bilibid before they were sent to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania of that year. In 1878, he painted the poignant and well-crafted Los mendigos (The Beggars).

In 1877, Resurreccion Hidalgo was awarded second place in the contest for best cover design for the de luxe edition of Fr. Manuel Blanco's Flora de Filipinas ("Plants of the Philippines"). In 1879 he left for Spain as a pensionado in fine arts of the Ayuntamiento of Manila.

His Las virgenes Cristianas expuestas al populacho (The Christian virgins Exposed to the Populace), was awarded the ninth silver medal at the 1884 Exposición General de Bellas Artes in Madrid. This showed a group of boorish looking males mocking semi-naked female slaves, one of whom is seated in the foreground, with head bowed in misery. In the same exposition Luna's Spoliarium was awarded a gold medal.

In the Exposición General de las Islas Filipinas in Madrid in 1887, Resurrección Hidalgo presented La barca de Aqueronte ("The Boat of Charon"),1887, and Laguna estigia ("The Styx"), 1887, for which he received a gold medal. La barca was again shown at the Exposition Universelle in Paris and was awarded a silver medal by an international jury. In 1891 it was accorded a diploma of honor at the Exposición General de Bellas Artes of Barcelona. This painting also received a gold medal in the International Exposition of Fine Arts in Madrid during the commemoration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America.

He exhibited Adios al sol ("Farewell to, the Sun"), 1891 at the Exposición Internacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid in that year and El crepusculo ("The Dawn"), 1893, at the Universal exposition in Chicago, also in that year. He showed both paintings again at the Exposición Artistica de Bilbao in August 1894. In the Exposición Regional de Filipinas in Manila in January 1895, Resurrección Hidalgo was represented by his paintings done in the grand romantic manner. In April of the same year he exhibited Oedipus y Antigone ("Oedipus and Antigone"), El violinista ("The Violinist"), Cabeza napolitana ("Head of a Neapolitan"), Cabeza del viejo ("Head of an Old Man"), Un religioso ("A Religious"), and others at the Salon at Champs Elysees, Paris.

Hidalgo received a gold medal for his overall participation at the Universal Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri in 1904. His El violinista was individually accorded a gold medal. In 1912, he visited his relatives in Manila for six months, after which he hurried back to Paris. His mother, who had not seen him for 30 years, wanted him to be with her in her last days but he had to leave. The following year, Resurrección Hidalgo died at Sarrià, Barcelona where he went to recuperate from failing health. His remains were brought to Manila, where it now lies entombed in the family mausoleum at the Cementerio del Norte.

Date of Issue June 15, 1988

Fernando Ma. Guerrero on Stamps

Fernando María Guerrero (1873-1929) is one of the most outstanding Filipino poet, journalist, politician, lawyer, polyglot and educator during the Philippine's golden era of Spanish literature, a period ranging from 1890 to the outbreak of World War II.

Guerrero wrote during the years 1898 to 1900. As a lawyer-educator he taught natural law, criminology and forensic oratory. He served as chairman of the board of examiners at the law school La Jurisprudencia. He was a Manila councilor, Secretary of the Senate and Secretary of the Philippine Independence Commission. He was also a director of the Academia de Leyes. Apart from Spanish, Guerrero spoke Latin and Greek. He was once an editor of El Renacimiento, La Vanguardia and La Opinion. He was a member of the First Philippine Assembly, the Academia Filipina and also became an appointee to the Municipal Board of Manila.

He was also a correspondent to the association Real Española de Madrid. His book of Spanish poems, Crisalidas, was published in 1914, which was considered as one of the ten best books written about the Philippines by the Enciclopedia Filipinas. His other poems written after the year 1914 appeared in a compilation called Aves y Flores.

Guerrero died on June 12, 1929, coinciding with that year's anniversary of the Philippine Republic. A school in Malate, Manila, Philippines was named after him in his honor.

Date of Issue: May 31, 1974

Maria Paz Mendoza Guanzon on Stamps

Maria Paz Mendoza Guazon, a medical practitioner, educator, scientist, writer, social reformer, feminist, philanthropist and civic leader, was the first woman doctor of the Philippines and the first woman in the history of the University of the Philippines College of Medicine.

She was an outstanding socio-civic leader and the founder of several women's organizations as well as an educator.

In 1912, she was the first woman to graduate from the U.P. College of Medicine. Dr. Mendoza-Guazon excelled in her researches in pathology and was known for her philanthropic work.

Maria Paz Mendoza Guanzon was born on May 10, 1884 in Pandacan, Manila. She was also the founder of the National League of Filipino Women, and was the first woman member of the Board of Regents of the University of the Philippines.

In 1951 she awarded a gold medal and an Award of Merit in 1963. She is a member in many organizations. She received three distinctive awards last year. The Philippine Federation of Private Medical Practitioners gave her the Distinguished Senior Physician Award on March 3, 1966. On April 30, 1966, she received the Presidential Merit Award. On May, 1966, she was conferred the degree of Doctor of Humanities (Honoris Causa) by the Centro Escolar University. She also earned an honorable mention from the Premio Zobel in 1930 for her work Notas de Viaje.

Date of Issue: May 26, 1984

Jose Gozar on Stamps

Lt. Jose "Pepe" Gozar was a young pilot whose bravery in the air battles of World War II earned him the Distinguished Flying Cross for Heroism. He was on his wasy from Mindoro to Leyte to join Gen. Douglas MacArthur's forces when he was captured and executed by the Japanese.

Pepe, was born in Calapan, Oriental Mindoro, on April 8, 1918; son of Juan Gozar and Calixta Cangco. He completed his elementary schooling and graduated as salutatorian from the Mindoro High School in March, 1936.

He enrolled at the University of the Philippines College of Commerce and worked as a student assistant in the College. After completing the required units, he enlisted in the Air Corps, Philippine Army, in April, 1938; entered the Flying School in October, 1938 and graduated in 1940. He served as instructor in the Flying School at Zablan Air Field until the outbreak of the war on December 8, 1941.

With Captain Collin Kelly and Col. Jesus Villamor, he received a citation from Gen. Douglas MacArthur for "his display of courage and leadership," for shooting down two Japanese bombers during the war. Together with a friend, also from the Air Corps, Lt. Gozar joined the army in Bataan and Corregidor for the last stand of the Philippine Army. He escaped the infamous "Death March"; tried to reach Mindanao with the hope of reaching Australia by any means of transportation. The Japs placed a fabulous price on his head as an army aviator...unsurrendered. At Bacolod, Negros Occidental, he had misunderstandings with the guerillas who suspected him to be a Japanese spy.

Sending danger and liquidation, he left on a sailboat with two friends. Caught by storm on the open sea, he abandoned the little craft and swam to the shore with one of his companions. He was captured and executed by the Japanese in 1944.

Date of Issue: October 20, 1955

Bienvenido Ma. Gonzales on Stamps

Bienvenido Maria Gonzales was a two-term president of the University of the Philippines.

Gonzales was born on November 22, 1893 in Apalit, Pampanga. His father was the illustrious Joaquin Gonzales, the rector of Universidad Literaria de Filipinas, the first institution of higher learning that was created by President Emilio Aguinaldo during the Philippine Revolution.

He took up agriculture at the same state university and pursued further studies as one of the first Filipino pensionados at the University of Wisconsin, where he obtained a master in science. He took up doctoral studies at John Hopkins University.

Upon his return to the Philippines, he was named an assistant professor of animal husbandry at the university and reached tenure in just six years. He was promoted to become the department head, followed by successive stints as dean of the College of Agriculture in 1928.

He was appointed the sixth president of the University of the Philippines in 1939, amidst opposition because of his animal breeding provenance. At 46 years old, he was the youngest ever to be named UP president and he was the very first alumnus to be so honored. His term was characterized by his open attitude to students and faculty and the encouragement of the use of Tagalog as a national language.

He encouraged the establishment of a UP College of Nursing. Along with Juan Nakpil, future National Artist, and UP Music Conservatory director Ramon Tapales, he conceived the UP Carillon in 1940.

Upon the outbreak of World War II, he resigned from his position rather than serve under the Japanese. President Jose Laurel of the 2nd republic designated Antonio Sison as his successor. When the Philippine Commonwealth was re-established in 1945, Dr. Gonzales was reappointed as the eighth president. He holds the distinction of being the only 2-term head of the state university.

Dr. Gonzales' second term was characterized by extreme difficulty and poverty. The Diliman campus which had been just recently inaugurated before the war lay in shambles. The Padre Faura campus was destroyed. Libraries and laboratories were lost. He made the momentous decision to transfer the bulk of the university's operations to the then distant and barren area of Diliman, insisting that the bulk of new construction be located on the 493 hectare area donated by the Tuason Family. Amidst attacks from media and opposition figures, he persisted with his vision and succeeded in having the United States War Damage Commission pay P13 million for rehabilitation and construction.

Dr. Gonzales had strong opinions, even against the the incumbent Philippine President Elpidio Quirino. He lobbied for the disapproval of an honorary degree conferment on Indonesia President Sukarno. He invited the president's chief critic Senator Claro M. Recto to speak at the commencement exercises. He refused to accept the Philippine president's offer to join the cabinet. He resigned from his position in 1951.

He died two years after on December 30, 1953.

Date of Issue: June 1, 1990

Elpidio R. Quirino on Stamps

Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was the sixth President of the Philippines. The abrupt death of President Manuel Roxas brought Elpidio Quirino to presidency. Upon his ascent, Quirino brought with him tremendous experience as public servant, having been a cabinet member, a representative, and a senator during previous regimes. Quirino served as president from April 17, 1948 to December 30, 1953.

Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur to Mariano Quirino and Gregoria Rivera, a Spanish-mestiza, Quirino spent his early years in Aringay, La Union. He received secondary education at Vigan High School, then went to Manila where he worked as junior computer in the Bureau of Lands and as property clerk in the Manila police department. He graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and also passed the civil service examination, first-grade.

Quirino attended the University of the Philippines in 1915, earning his law degree and practicing law until he was elected as member of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1919 to 1925, then as senator from 1925 to 1931. He then served as secretary of finance and secretary of the interior in the Commonwealth government.

In 1934, Quirino was a member of the Philippine Independence mission to Washington D.C., headed by Manuel Quezon that secured the passage in the United States Congress of the Tydings-McDuffie Act. This legislation set the date for Philippine independence by 1945. Official declaration came on July 4, 1946.

During the Japanese invasion during World War II, he became a leader of the underground rebellion and was captured and imprisoned. He suffered the execution of his wife, Alicia Syquía, and three of his five children by the Japanese conquerors.

After the war, Quirino continued public service, becoming president pro tempore of the senate. In 1946, he was elected first vice president of the independent Republic of the Philippines, serving under Manuel Roxas. He also served as secretary of state.

Quirino retired to private life in Quezon City, Manila. He died of a heart attack on February 29, 1956. His death anniversary is observed on February 28.

Date of Issue: June1, 1990

Guillermo E. Tolentino on Stamps

Guillermo Estrella Tolentino (1890-1976) is the "Father of Philippine Arts", a product of the Revival period in Philippine art. He also is the fourth director of the UP School of Fine Arts.

Tolentino was named National Artist in Sculpture in 1973. He first attained National recognition for his masterpiece, the multi-figural Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan City- the symbol of the Filipinos' cry for freedom. His other famous work include the Oblation in the University of the Philippines-symbol of freedom at the campus, and the statue of Ramon Magsaysay in the lobby of the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) building.

His design for the Ramon Magsaysay Award the gold and bronze medals and the seal of the Republic of the Philippines made him the "National Artist for Sculpture" in 1973.

Date of Issue: June 1, 1990

Wednesday, April 7, 2010

Isabelo de los Reyes on Stamps

Isabelo de los Reyes, popularly known as " Don Belong", was a law graduate of the University of Santo Tomas majoring also in philosophy, history and anthropology. He was a Notary Public at age twenty-two. He was the founder and the first president of the first Labor Union in Manila. A founding member of the Philippines Independent Church, he also served as councilor of Manila for two years and finally as senator for six years.

Born to Elias de los Reyes and the poetess Leona Florentino in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, he attended schools in Vigan and Manila. He followed his mother's footsteps by initially turning to writing as a career and became a journalist, editor, and publisher in Manila.

At 6 years old, due to troubled marriage of his parents, Isabelo was entrusted to a rich relative, Meno Crisologo, who later enrolled him into a grammar school attached to their local seminary run by Augustinians.

In 1880, at age 16 he escaped to Manila where he finished Bachiller en Artes at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran. After that, he studied law, history and palaeography at the Pontifical University of Santo Tomas.

In 1887, at the age of 23, he won a silver medal at the Exposición Filipina in Madrid for a huge Spanish-language manuscript he called El folk-lore filipino. It was the same year Jose Rizal published his first novel, Noli Me Tangere in Berlin. As a teenager, he was inspired to write about the foundation of this "new science" concerned about el saber popular or folklore, as he read an appeal in Manila's Spanish newspaper La Oceania Española (founded 1877) asking readers to contribute articles to develop the science of el folk-lore, followed by a simple sketch of how this was to be done. Two months later Isabelo set to work not merely on folklore of Ilocos, but also on his future wife's township of Malabon on the outskirts of Manila, on the Central Luzon province of Zambales, and in general terms, what he called el folk-lore filipino. It became one of the greatest passions of his life. By 1886, just as the French was starting to pursue a national effort of applying the study of folklore on their own native tradition, Isabelo is already producing a manuscript for publishing.

After his father died he was obliged to support himself and did so while pursuing his passion in writing, he contributed to most of Manila's newspapers. And in 1889 he founded the first vernacular newspaper in the country, El Ilocano, , said to be the first such newspaper written solely in a Philippine vernacular. He continued to write and research extensively on Philippine history and culture.

As a journalist, he almost faced the firing squad for attracting the ire of Spanish authorities in highlighting Spanish church and governmental abuses. He turned his writings against the Americans when they took over in 1898, and took advantage of rapidly changing sentiments of the Spanish intelligentsia as they saw America taking over the remnants of the Spanish overseas empire. In Madrid, he published fortnightly Filipinas ante Europa with the editorial Logo: "Contra Norte-America, no; contra el imperialismo, sí, hasta la muerte!" ("Against the Americans, NO; against Imperialism, YES, till death!") It ran for 36 issues between 25 October 1899 and 10 June 1901. After closing (probably due to trouble with the authorities), it briefly reappeared as "El Defensor de Filipinas" which ran monthly from 1 July to 1 October 1901. But Don Belong isn't only a journalist; according to the chronicles of the Philippine Bible Society, he also helped in translating the Bible in Ilocano. He did this when he was detained, thus making him one of the few convicts to translate the Scriptures.

He was later jailed when he returned to the Philippines for inciting labor strikes against American business firms. Influenced by European socialism (specially during his imprisonment in Barcelona), as well as Marxism, Isabelo de los Reyes founded the first labor union in the country in 1902, the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina, against what he perceived as the impending exploitation of Filipino labor by American capitalist institutions. In the same year, he, along with UNO members launched the Philippine Independent Church in response against the Catholic Church, and chose his fellow Ilocano compatriot, Gregorio Aglipay, as its first bishop.

In 1923, he won a Senate seat in an election against Elpidio Quirino, representing the Ilocos region. After his term, he went back to private life and dedicated the remainder of his life to religious writings for the Aglipayan church as an honorary bishop. Writing sermons and other Christian literature, he translated the bible and its various components into his native Ilocano. However, nearing death, he retracted and returned to Catholicism in 1938. De los Reyes was married and widowed three times and had 27 children.

The stamp was issued in May 4, 1982.

Felipe Calderon on Stamps

Calderon is known as the Father of the Malolos Constitution declaring the first Philippine Republic in 1898. His other career highlights include the founding of the Asociacion Historica de Filipinas. He was appointed by General Emilio Aguinaldo as representative of the district of Paragua in the Revolutionary Congress.

Felipe Gonzales Calderón y Roca (April 4, 1868 – July 6, 1908) was a Filipino lawyer, politician, and intellectual, known as the "Father of the Malolos Constitution".

Calderón y Roca was born in Santa Cruz de Malabon (now Tanza), Cavite, to Don José Gonzales Calderón and Doña Manuela Roca. He studied at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila for his primary and secondary courses and was granted a scholarship. He received with high honors in Bachelor of Arts degree. He worked in newspaper industry and wrote for several newspapers. He later enrolled at the University of Santo Tomas and completed his studies in 1893. After graduation, he participated in the law office of Don Cayetano Arellano.

During the Philippine Revolution, he ardently supported the revolutionary movement, an organization that aimed to gained independence from Spain. Thus, his activities caused him imprisonment from the Spanish colonial authorities.

In September 1898, after the return of Emilio Aguinaldo to Cavite from Hong Kong, he accepted Aguinaldo’s appointment as a representative of the first district of Paragua in the Revolutionary Congress in Malolos, Bulacan. After the Spanish-American War, the República Filipina (Philippine Republic) were formed during the Malolos Constitution on January 25, 1899.

When the Philippine-American War began, he traveled to Manila where he appeared before the Schurmann Commission on April 27, offering suggestions for the restoration of peace. He was requested to draft rules for the Philippine government of the first municipalities during the war with the United States.

In 1899, Calderón y Roca founded two law universities. These are the Colegio de Abogados de Manila (School of Lawyers of Manila) and the Escuela de Derecho (School of Duties). He taught in both institutions. In 1904, he was appointed member of a commission to draft a proposed Penal Code. He also organized the La Protección de la Infancia, (The Protection of Infants), an institution that established humanitarian institution to protect and care for disadvantage children.

Calderón y Roca died on July 6, 1908.

The stamp was issued on April 14, 1968.

Jose Burgos on Stamps

One of the three priest (GOMBURZA) executed by Garrote at the Bagumbayan Field, Burgos was a stern opponent of the foreign Jesuit's takeover of the parishes. The last to be executed, he was compelled to watch his compatriots die by garrote- a cruel fate for one, In Rizal's words, "still young with ideas in ones head".

José Apolonio Burgos y García was a Filipino mestizo secular priest, accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century. He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila along with two other clergymen.

Burgos was born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur on February 9, 1837 to a Spanish officer, Don José Tiburcio Burgos, and a mestiza mother named Florencia García. He obtained three undergraduate degrees with honors, two masters degrees and two doctorate degrees from the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and from the University of Santo Tomas. He conducted his first mass in the Intramuros.

Burgos' liberal views, codified in editorial essays, championing political and ecclesiastic reforms in favor of empowering more native clergymen, made him a target of opposition by Roman Catholic authorities.

In 1864, an anonymous pamphlet was published in Manila, criticizing the prejudice in the Church, and providing rebuttals against several canards against the native clergy. Although the document was unsigned, historians believe the author to be Burgos, based on its style and content. Burgos also penned several signed articles later in his life, in response to a series of anonymous written attacks on the Filipino clergy. Though Burgos offered few new ideas, his name caught the attention of Spanish authorities, who would report that the native clergy was becoming liberal and separatist.

In 1869, Felipe Buencamino, a young student and an acquaintance of Burgos, was charged with spreading nationalist propaganda in the form of leaflets scattered throughout his school's campus, demanding academic freedom. This accusation was given credence by a protest he staged several months prior, against being required to speak Latin in the classroom. Consequently, Buencamino and some of his associates were sent to jail. With the aid of Burgos, Buencamino was freed four months later, only to be told that having missed school for four months, he would have to find a tutor who would help him make up for the classes he missed. Buencamino chose Burgos.

By this time, Burgos had established a reputation as a defender of the native clergy. His debates over the rights of native priests had extended to include questions of race and nationalism. This reputation would eventually cause him to be implicated in a mutiny in Cavite.

After the Cavite Mutiny on January 20, 1872, the trial of mutineer sergeant Bonifacio Octavo revealed that a man named Zaldua had been recruiting people for an uprising. Octavo testified that this man claimed to be under the orders of Burgos, but inconsistent details during Octavo's cross-examinations called into question the validity of his testimony. Nevertheless, governor-general Rafael Izquierdo reported to Madrid that the testimony had confirmed his suspicions, and pinned the blame on Burgos and two other priests, Jacinto Zamora and Mariano Gómez, for sedition.

The three were dragged through a tribunal amid a list of drummed up charges and false witnesses, and where their own lawyers betrayed them to the court. On February 17, 1872, they were garroted in the middle of Bagumbayan field (now Luneta Park).

The stamp was issued on March 24, 1963.