Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Rota- Anthem of the Polish National-Territorial Region

The Polish National-Territorial Region (Polish: Polski Kraj Narodowo-Terytorialny) was an autonomous region in Lithuania, self-proclaimed by the local Poles on 6 September 1990. The region included areas surrounding Vilnius, capital of Lithuania, where Poles formed the majority (60–90%). This Eastern part of Lithuania had been part of Poland (from 1922) before being attached to Lithuania under the Mutual Assistance Treaty with the Soviet Union in 1939.

The autonomy region with capital in Naujoji Vilnia included 4,930 km² and population of 215,000 (66% of them Poles). The Polish autonomous movement was related to the Yedinstvo movement and had tacit support from Moscow (thus, when following the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania the Soviets applied a blockade against Lithuania, the areas of Eastern Lithuania with significant minority population were mostly spared of the blockade, with the aim of gaining minorities' support for Moscow). In the region, the Polish Red-and-White flags were used as official flag and Rota was used as an anthem in the region.

Rota's lyrics were written in 1908 by Maria Konopnicka. The music was composed two years later by Feliks Nowowiejski. Konopnicka's poem came into being as a protest against the German Empire's oppression and suppression of Polish culture in German-occupied western Poland — lands that from the late 18th century after the Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to 1918 were under Prussian — and later, German — rule.

Rota was first sung publicly during a patriotic demonstration in Kraków on July 15, 1910, held to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the Polish-Lithuanian victory over the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Grunwald. The anthem quickly became popular across partitioned Poland. Until 1918, Rota served as the anthem of the Polish Scouting movement. After Poland regained independence in 1918, Rota, in 1927, found itself under consideration for a time as a possible Polish national anthem.

The Lithuanian government declared the formation of the Polish autonomous district in Lithuania unconstitutional. After the August Coup of the Soviet hardliners had failed, the Lithuanian parliament suspended on 3 September 1991 the democratically elected local councils that had sought autonomy or secession from Lithuania, thus abolishing the anthem.

Above is a FDC of the composer of Rota, Feliks Nowowiejski, issued by Poland in 2010

Sunday, September 11, 2011

The New National Anthem of Libya

Libya, Libya, Libya (also known as Ya Beladi, "Oh my country!"), composed by Mohammed Abdel Wahab, is the new national anthem of Libya. He also composed the music for the anthems of Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates. The anthem was used until the monarchy was abolished in a coup by Moammar Qadaffi in 1969, when it was replaced with a new anthem. It was originally the national anthem from independence in 1951 until 1969 when King Idris I was overthrown by a Coup d'état led by Muammar al-Gaddafi. Gaddafi adopted the Egyptian marching song Allahu Akbar (God is Greatest) as the national anthem of the newly proclaimed Libyan Arab Republic. The anthem was a Muslim call to prayer and a statement of faith composed by Abdalla Shams El-Din and lyrics written by Mahmoud El-Sherif.

During the 2011 Libyan civil war, Libya, Libya, Libya was declared the new national anthem and restored by the transitional government.

Above is a first day cover of the Libyan anthem composer Mohammed Abdel Wahab issued by Egypt.

Thursday, September 8, 2011

The Rising Sun of Argentina as Described in the First Version of its Anthem

It is still unknown who designed the coat of arms, but it is often mentioned that there were three men: Alvear, Monteagudo and Vieytes, but it is known that a few years before, President Bernardino Rivadavia asked the Peruvian Antonio Isidoro Castro to create an Argentine coat of arms, but the two schemes were never found. The coat of arms is a figure, in which we find the following symbols: At the top is the famous sun symbol of Argentina, the gold-yellowed Sun of May, also found on the Flag of Argentina. The rising sun symbolizes the rising of Argentina, as described in the first version of the Argentine National Anthem: it says "Se levanta a la faz de la tierra una nueva y gloriosa nación," meaning "A new and glorious nation rises to the surface of earth." It must be noticed how the verb "rise" (and so in Spanish) can be used to describe the motion of the Sun.