Sunday, February 6, 2011

The UPAEP Symbols Series 2010: The Brazilian National Anthem on Stamp

The Brazilian national anthem (Hino Nacional Brasileiro) was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in 1822 and had been given at least two sets of unofficial lyrics before a 1922 decree by President Epitácio Pessoa gave the anthem its definitive, official lyrics, by Osório Duque-Estrada, after several changes were made to his proposal, written in 1909.

The melody of the Brazilian national anthem was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in 1822. In style, the music resembles early Romantic Italian music such as that of Gioachino Rossini. On September 7 of that year, the country declared its independence from the Portuguese Empire.

In 1831, it became a popular song after the addition of verses celebrating the abdication of the Brazilian throne by Pedro I. Later, at the time of the coronation of Pedro II, its lyrics were changed and the song, due to its huge popularity, started being considered the national anthem, although it was not enacted as such. There was no statute at the time establishing a National Anthem, but the melody, without lyrics, was widely used as such during the reign of Emperor Pedro II, and was regarded as the National Anthem by all.

After the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889, the new rulers made a competition in order to choose a new anthem, and the competition was won by Leopoldo Miguez. After protests against the adoption of the proposed new anthem, however, President Deodoro da Fonseca formalized Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition as the National Anthem, while Miguez's composition was deemed the Anthem of the Proclamation of the Republic. Dedoro himself was said to prefer the old anthem to the new composition that became the Anthem of the Proclamation of the Republic. During the celebration of the centenary of the Proclamation of Independence, in 1922, an adapted version of Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada's lyrics, proposed in 1909, were deemed official. Prior to that, the anthem had different lyrics in each Brazilian state.

The stamp above features the score and lyrics on the Brazilian national anthem issued on 2010 (UPAEP symbols series).